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The 25 most difficult questions you’llbe asked on a job interview

The 25 most difficult questions you’llbe asked on a job interview

 

Being prepared is half the battle.

 

If you are one of those executive types unhappy at your present post and embarkingon a New Year’s resolution to find a new one, here’s a helping hand. The jobinterview is considered to be the most critical aspect of every expedition that bringsyou face-to- face with the future boss. One must prepare for it with the sametenacity and quickness as one does for a fencing tournament or a chess match.

 

This article has been excerpted from “PARTING COMPANY: How to Survive the Lossof a Job and Find Another Successfully” by William J. Morin and James C. Cabrera.Copyright by Drake Beam Morin, inc. Publised by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

 

Morin is chairman and Cabrera is president of New York-based DrakeBeam Morin, nation’s major outplacement firm, which has opened officesin Philadelphia.

 

1. Tell me about yourself.

 

Since this is often the opening question in an interview, be extracareful that youdon’t run off at the mouth. Keep your answer to a minute or two at most. Coverfour topics: early years, education, work history, and recent career experience.Emphasize this last subject. Remember that this is likely to be a warm-up question.Don’t waste your best points on it.

 

2. What do you know about our organization?

 

You should be able to discuss products or services, revenues, reputation, image,goals, problems, management style, people, history and philosophy. But don’t act asif you know everything about the place. Let your answer show that you have takenthe time to do some research, but don’t overwhelm the interviewer, and make itclear that you wish to learn more.

 

You might start your answer in this manner: “In my job search, I’ve investigated anumber of companies.

 

Yours is one of the few that interests me, for these reasons…”

 

Give your answer a positive tone. Don’t say, “Well, everyone tells me that you’re inall sorts of trouble, and that’s why I’m here”, even if that is why you’re there.

 

3. Why do you want to work for us?

 

The deadliest answer you can give is “Because I like people.” What else would youlike-animals?

 

Here, and throughout the interview, a good answer comes from having done yourhomework so that you can speak in terms of the company’s needs. You might saythat your research has shown that the company is doing things you would like to beinvolved with, and that it’s doing them in ways that greatly interest you. Forexample, if the organization is known for strong management, your answer shouldmention that fact and show that you would like to be a part of that team. If thecompany places a great deal of emphasis on research and development, emphasizethe fact that you want to create new things and that you know this is a place inwhich such activity is encouraged. If the organization stresses financial controls,your answer should mention a reverence for numbers.

 

If you feel that you have to concoct an answer to this question – if, for example, thecompany stresses research, and you feel that you should mention it even though itreally doesn’t interest you- then you probably should not be taking that interview,because you probably shouldn’t be considering a job with that organization.

 

Your homework should include learning enough about the company to avoidapproaching places where you wouldn’t be able -or wouldn’t want- to function.Since most of us are poor liars, it’s difficult to con anyone in an interview. But evenif you should succeed at it, your prize is a job you don’t really want.

 

4. What can you do for us that someone else can’t?

 

Here you have every right, and perhaps an obligation, to toot your own horn and bea bit egotistical. Talk about your record of getting things done, and mentionspecifics from your resume or list of career accomplishments. Say that your skillsand interests, combined with this history of getting results, make you valuable.Mention your ability to set priorities, identify problems, and use your experience andenergy to solve them.

 

5. What do you find most attractive about this position? What seems leastattractive about it?

 

List three or four attractive factors of the job, and mention a single, minor,unattractive item.

 

6. Why should we hire you?

 

Create your answer by thinking in terms of your ability, your experience, and yourenergy. (See question 4.)

 

7. What do you look for in a job?

 

Keep your answer oriented to opportunities at this organization. Talk about yourdesire to perform and be recognized for your contributions. Make your answeroriented toward opportunity rather than personal security.

 

8. Please give me your defintion of [the position for which you are beinginterviewed].

 

Keep your answer brief and taskoriented. Think in in terms of responsibilities andaccountability. Make sure that you really do understand what the position involvesbefore you attempt an answer. If you are not certain. ask the interviewer; he or shemay answer the question for you.

 

9. How long would it take you to make a meaningful contribution to our firm?

 

Be realistic. Say that, while you would expect to meet pressing demands and pullyour own weight from the first day, it might take six months to a year before youcould expect to know the organization and its needs well enough to make a majorcontribution.

 

10. How long would you stay with us?

 

Say that you are interested in a career with the organization, but admit that youwould have to continue to feel challenged to remain with any organization. Think interms of, “As long as we both feel achievement-oriented.”

 

11. Your resume suggests that you may be over-qualified or too experienced forthis position. What’s Your opinion?

 

Emphasize your interest in establishing a long-term association with theorganization, and say that you assume that if you perform well in his job, newopportunities will open up for you. Mention that a strong company needs a strongstaff. Observe that experienced executives are always at a premium. Suggest thatsince you are so wellqualified, the employer will get a fast return on his investment.Say that a growing, energetic company can never have too much talent.

 

12. What is your management style?

 

You should know enough about the company’s style to know that your managementstyle will complement it. Possible styles include: task oriented (I’ll enjoy problem-solving identifying what’s wrong, choosing a solution and implementing it”), results-oriented (“Every management decision I make is determined by how it will affect thebottom line”), or even paternalistic (“I’m committed to taking care of mysubordinates and pointing them in the right direction”).

 

A participative style is currently quite popular: an open-door method of managing inwhich you get things done by motivating people and delegating responsibility.

 

As you consider this question, think about whether your style will let you workhatppily and effectively within the organization.

 

13. Are you a good manager? Can you give me some examples? Do you feel thatyou have top managerial potential?

 

Keep your answer achievementand ask-oriented. Rely on examples from your careerto buttress your argument. Stress your experience and your energy.

 

14. What do you look for when You hire people?

 

Think in terms of skills. initiative, and the adaptability to be able to workcomfortably and effectively with others. Mention that you like to hire people whoappear capable of moving up in the organization.

 

15. Have you ever had to fire people? What were the reasons, and how did youhandle the situation?

 

Admit that the situation was not easy, but say that it worked out well, both for thecompany and, you think, for the individual. Show that, like anyone else, you don’tenjoy unpleasant tasks but that you can resolve them efficiently and -in the case offiring someone- humanely.

 

16. What do you think is the most difficult thing about being a manager orexecutive?

 

Mention planning, execution, and cost-control. The most difficult task is to motivateand manage employess to get something planned and completed on time andwithin the budget.

 

17. What important trends do you see in our industry?

 

Be prepared with two or three trends that illustrate how well you understand yourindustry. You might consider technological challenges or opportunities, economicconditions, or even regulatory demands as you collect your thoughts about thedirection in which your business is heading.

 

18. Why are you leaving (did you leave) your present (last) job?

 

Be brief, to the point, and as honest as you can without hurting yourself. Refer backto the planning phase of your job search. where you considered this topic as you setyour reference statements. If you were laid off in an across-the-board cutback, sayso; otherwise, indicate that the move was your decision, the result of your action.Do not mention personality conflicts.

 

The interviewer may spend some time probing you on this issue, particularly if it isclear that you were terminated. The “We agreed to disagree” approach may beuseful. Remember hat your references are likely to be checked, so don’t concoct astory for an interview.

 

19. How do you feel about leaving all your benefits to find a new job?

 

Mention that you are concerned, naturally, but not panicked. You are willing toaccept some risk to find the right job for yourself. Don’t suggest that security mightinterest you more than getting the job done successfully.

 

20. In your current (last) position, what features do (did) you like the most? Theleast?

 

Be careful and be positive. Describe more features that you liked than disliked. Don’tcite personality problems. If you make your last job sound terrible, an interviewermay wonder why you remained there until now.

 

21. What do you think of your boss?

 

Be as positive as you can. A potential boss is likely to wonder if you might talkabout him in similar terms at some point in the future.

 

22. Why aren’t you earning more at your age?

 

Say that this is one reason that you are conducting this job search. Don’t bedefensive.

 

23. What do you feel this position should pay?

 

Salary is a delicate topic. We suggest that you defer tying yourself to a precise figurefor as long as you can do so politely. You might say, “I understand that the rangefor this job is between $______ and $______. That seems appropriate for the jobas I understand it.” You might answer the question with a question: “Perhaps youcan help me on this one. Can you tell me if there is a range for similar jobs in theorganization?”

 

If you are asked the question during an initial screening interview, you might saythat you feel you need to know more about the position’s responsibilities before youcould give a meaningful answer to that question. Here, too, either by asking theinterviewer or search executive (if one is involved), or in research done as part ofyour homework, you can try to find out whether there is a salary grade attached tothe job. If there is, and if you can live with it, say that the range seems right to you.

 

If the interviewer continues to probe, you might say, “You know that I’m making$______ now. Like everyone else, I’d like to improve on that figure, but my majorinterest is with the job itself.” Remember that the act of taking a new job does not,in and of itself, make you worth more money.

 

If a search firm is involved, your contact there may be able to help with the salaryquestion. He or she may even be able to run interference for you. If, for instance,he tells you what the position pays, and you tell him that you are earning thatamount now and would Like to do a bit better, he might go back to the employerand propose that you be offered an additional 10%.

 

If no price range is attached to the job, and the interviewer continues to press thesubject, then you will have to restpond with a number. You cannot leave theimpression that it does not really matter, that you’ll accept whatever is offered. Ifyou’ve been making $80,000 a year, you can’t say that a $35,000 figure would befine without sounding as if you’ve given up on yourself. (If you are making a radicalcareer change, however, this kind of disparity may be more reasonable andunderstandable.)

 

Don’t sell yourself short, but continue to stress the fact that the job itself is the mostimportant thing in your mind. The interviewer may be trying to determine just howmuch you want the job. Don’t leave the impression that money is the only thing thatis important to you. Link questions of salary to the work itself.

 

But whenever possible, say as little as you can about salary until you reach the”final” stage of the interview process. At that point, you know that the company isgenuinely interested in you and that it is likely to be flexible in salary negotiations.

 

24. What are your long-range goals?

 

Refer back to the planning phase of your job search. Don’t answer, “I want the jobyou’ve advertised.” Relate your goals to the company you are interviewing: ‘in a firmlike yours, I would like to…”

 

25. How successful do you you’ve been so far?

 

Say that, all-in-all, you’re happy with the way your career has progressed so far.Given the normal ups and downs of life, you feel that you’ve done quite well andhave no complaints.

 

Present a positive and confident picture of yourself, but don’t overstate your case.An answer like, “Everything’s wonderful! I can’t think of a time when things weregoing better! I’m overjoyed!” is likely to make an interviewer wonder whether you’retrying to fool him . . . or yourself. The most convincing confidence is usually quietconfidence.

 

工作面试时最难回答的25个问题

 

准备是成功的一半

 

如果你是一个对目前的职位不满意,正着手去在新的一年里找到一个新的职位,这篇文章就是你的一个帮手。工作面试是你去面对未来的老板的征途中最重要的一个过程。你必须像进行一个击剑锦标赛或着一个国际象棋比赛那样的坚韧和敏捷来对待面试。

 

本为是从 William J. Morin和James C. Cabrera 的“在失业的时候如何生存并成功的找到另一个工作”一文中摘选出来的。版权所有:Drake Beam Morin, inc;出版:Harcourt BraceJovanovich。

 

Morin是纽约的Drake Beam Morin公司的董事长,Cabrera是该公司的主席。该公司是国家主要的新职介绍公司,办公所在地在费城。

 

1.介绍你自己

 

这个问题通常是一个面试的开始的第一个问题,要额外的小心不要滔滔不绝。尽可能的让你的回答在一分钟,最多2分钟的时间内结束。你的回答应该包含以下4个主题:早期生活,教育背景,工作背景以及最近的工作经验。要着重强调最后的那个主题。要牢记这个问题通常是一个热身的问题,不要把你的最重要的观点浪费在这个问题上。

 

2.你对我们公司有什么样的了解

 

你必须能够谈论关于这个公司的产品,服务,收入,业界声望,形象,目标,存在的问题,管理风格,职工,历史和企业文化等问题。但是不要表现出你对这个公司的一切都了如指掌。让你的回答能够体现出你对该公司做了一些研究,但是不要让面试官被你打败(overwhelm),并表现出你希望能够了解关于公司更多的情况。

 

你可以用这样的态度来开始回答问题:“在我的寻找工作的过程中,我调查研究了很多公司,出于如下的理由,贵公司是我感兴趣的公司之一:”。

 

用一个积极的态度来回答这个问题,不要这样说:“每个人都告诉我这个公司处于困境中,有各种样的麻烦,这就是我来这儿的原因”,即是那的确是你在这儿的理由。

 

3.为什么你希望来我们公司工作?

 

最糟糕的答案就是“因为我喜欢人”。要是你喜欢的是动物,那你去哪工作呢?

 

在这个问题的回答上,并且贯穿整个面试的过程中,一个优秀的答案总是来自于你所作的调查研究,这样的话你可以从公司的需要那个方面来回答。你可能说你的研究表明这个公司所做的工作正是你说希望参与的,并且他们做这个工作的方式极大的吸引了你。例如,如果这个公司由于强大的管理而著称,纳闷你的答案可以提到这个事实,并表示你希望成为这个小组的一员。如果这个公司着重强调研发,那么就强调你希望创造你的事物,而你知道这个公司非常鼓励这样的行为。如果这个公司强调经济控制,你的答案就应该包含对数字的热爱。

 

如果你觉得你必须捏造一个答案,例如如果这个公司强调研发,但是你觉得你必须提到这一点而实际上你对这根本不感兴趣,那么你可能根本不应该参加这个面试,因为你可能根本不会考虑在这个公司工作。

 

你的之前的准备必须包括对这个公司做详尽的了解,来避免到一个你无法发挥才干或者根本不想去的公司面试。大多数人都不擅长说谎,所以在面试中欺瞒面试官是一件很困难的事情。即使你成功的做到了这一点,你所获得的也只是一个你不想参加的工作。

 

4.你可以为我们完成哪些其他人做不到的事情?

 

这个问题上,你有权利或者是义务来自吹自擂。谈论一些你完成工作的记录,提到你简历中的独特之处,或者列出你职业生涯中的成就。告诉别人,你的技能和兴趣在获取这些结果的过程中发挥了很大的作用,并使得你很有价值。提到你能够合理的安排工作优先顺序,找出问题,并利用你的经验和精力来解决问题。

 

5.你觉得这个职位最吸引你的地方是什么?最不吸引你的地方又是什么?

 

列出3到4个这个工作吸引人的方面,然后提出一个简单的不重要的不吸引人的问题。

 

6.为什么我们应该雇佣你?

 

参见问题4, 考虑你的能力,你的工作经历和你的干劲。

 

7.你希望在工作中能够获得什么?

 

让你的答案来源与这个公式提供的机会。谈论你希望能够大展身手并获取认可的要求。让你的答案基于工作机会而不是个人的要求。

 

8.谈论一下你对你应聘的这个职位的定义

 

你的答案应该简短并且是基于工作要求的。考虑这个工作的责任和义务。在你回答问题之前确定你真正的了解这个职位所涉及的方方面面。如果你不确定,就去问面试官,他可能会帮你回答这个问题。

 

9.你需要多久能够对公司做出显著的贡献?

 

答案要实际一点。可以这样回答,尽管你希望从第一天开始就能够满足公司紧迫的要求,并开始发挥作用,但是你可能需要6个月到1年的时间来足够了解这个公司及其需要来做出很大的贡献。

 

10.你会在公司工作多久?

 

可以这样回答,你对在这个公司的职业生涯很感兴趣,可是也得承认你必须能够不断感觉到有挑战才能够继续在任何公司呆着。可以考虑这样的语句“只要我们双方都感觉有收获”。

 

11.你的简历显示你的能力超出了这个工作的要求,你是如何认为的?

 

强调你对在这个公司开始一个长期的合作的兴趣,你可以说你认为如果你在这个职位上表现的很好,公司还会为你提供新的机会。也要提到一个好公司需要好的职员。有检验的职员总会有很好的奖励;既然你是如此的很是这个职位,雇主将会很快从他的投资中获得回报。一个发展中的,充满活力的工资永远不会嫌天才多的。

 

12.你的管理方式是什么样的?

 

你必须对这个公司的风格有足够的了解,这样才能让你的管理风格对其进行补充。可能的风格包括:基于任务的(我喜爱问题-研究那些是错误的,选择一个解决方案并完成),基于结构的(我做出的任何一个管理的决定是基于它是如何影响问题的底线的),或者是家长式作风的(我致力与管理好我的每一个下属,并给他们指引正确的方向)。

 

民主参与式的风格是目前比较流行的一种:一个开放的管理方式,通过激励手下并根据所负责的事情分派任务来完成每一件事情。

 

当你考虑这个问题的时候,要思考你的风格是否会让你在这个公司里高兴并有效率的工作。

 

13.你是一个合格的经理吗?你可以举一些例子吗?你是否觉得你有顶级管理人员的潜力?

 

保证你的答案是基于成果和任务的。通过你职业生涯中的一些例子来加固你的论点。强调你的经验和精力。

 

14.当你招聘人手的时候你需要什么类型的?

 

考虑一些技能方面的问题。主动性,以及能够舒服和有效的与其他人一起工作的适应性。提到你希望雇佣一些看起来能够在公司中获得提升的人。

 

15.你是否曾经不得不解雇一些员工?是什么理由?你是如何解决这个情况的?

 

要承认这个情况不是容易解决的,但是你还是很好的解决了,不管是从公司角度还是从个人角度。让他们知道,和其他人一样,你不喜欢这种让人不乐意的工作,但是你可以有效的富有人情味的解决问题,尤其是在要解雇某个人的时候。

 

16.你认为作为一个经理或者高级行政人员最困难的事情是什么?

 

要提到指定计划,指定和成本控制。最困难的任务是要去激发并管理雇员来完成一些计划中的事情,并且按时的在预算范围内完成任务。

 

17.在我们这个行业中你觉得什么是最重要的趋势?

 

一样要准备两到三个趋势来阐明你对所在行业的是多么的了解。你可以需要考虑技术上的挑战或者机会,金融环境甚至管理的需求作为你所应该考虑收集的关于你的行业说面对的状况。

 

18.你为什么离开你现在的工作(上一个工作)?

 

在不伤害你自己的情况下要简明扼要并诚实的回答这个问题。回溯到你寻找工作的计划阶段,那时你正在把这个话题当作你的工作经历。如果你是在一次公司裁员中被裁掉的,直接说出来好了;否则的话,要指明这次离职是你自己的决定,你自己行动的结构,不要特到任何关于性格冲突等。

 

19.你觉得放弃原来所有的福利待遇等来寻找一个新的工作是什么感觉?

 

要提到你很自然的担心这一点,但是并不很恐慌。你愿意为寻找到合适的工作而冒一点风险。不要说,你对安全感比成功的完成工作更感兴趣。

 

20.在你上一份工作中,你最喜欢那个方面的特点?最不喜欢哪个?

 

要小心而计息的回答这个问题。要多说你喜欢的特性,而少说你不喜欢的。不要引用个人的问题。如果你使得你的上一份工作听起来很糟糕,面试官会疑问你为什么还能在上一份职位上一直待到现在。

 

21.你如何看待你的老板?

 

要尽可能积极的回答这个问题。你潜在的未来的老板很希望能够了解你未来在相似的场合会如何谈论他。

 

22.你在现在的年龄中为什么不能赚到更多?

 

要告诉他这是你寻找新的工作的理由之一,不要处于守势。

 

23.你希望这个职位的薪水是多少?

 

讨论薪水是一个很微妙的问题。我们建议你在条件允许的情况下尽可能的拖延用一个精确的数据来回答这个问题。你可以说,“我知道这个工作的薪水的大概范围是¥—到¥—。这个对于我来说是合适的价位。”你也可以用一个问题来回答这个问题:

 

“你可能在这个问题上可以帮助我。你能否告诉我在公司中对相似职位的工作的大概薪水是多少?”。

 

如果你是在一个最初的面试中遇到这个问题,你可以说你觉得你需要更多的了解这个职位的职能才能够对这个问题有个有意思的回答。在这个问题上通过询问面试官或者人事高级主管或者自己去寻找结果,你可以尝试去获得这份工作是由有一个工资等级。如果有,并且你能够接受,那么直接回答你满意这个薪水范围好了。

 

如果面试官继续纠缠这个问题的话,你可以说“我现在的薪水是¥–。和其他人一样,我希望能够提升这个数字,但是我主要的兴趣还是在工作本身。”要记住,获取一个新的工作这件事本身不会使得你能够赚到更多的钱。

 

如果一个猎头公司也参与了此事的话,你的联系人可能可以帮助你解决这个薪水的问题。他甚至可以帮你介入此事。例如,如果他告诉你这个职位的待遇,然后你告诉他你现在已经赚那么多的,并且希望待遇能够适当的提升,他可能会去雇主那然后提议给你增加10%的待遇。

 

如果没有获得关于这个职位的合适的信息,而面试官还继续这个话题的话,你可以用一个具体的数字来回答这个问题。你不能给别人留下待遇完全没有影响你将会接受任何待遇的印象。如果你年薪8W的话,你不可能没有变现出放弃自己的时候,说3.5W一年也是可以接受的。(如果你是在做工作的一个彻底的变化的话,这种情况可能也是有道理,可以理解的)。

 

不要很快就把你自己卖掉:),但是要继续的强调这个工作本身才是你最看重的东西。面试官可能会去判断你希望从这个工作的待遇是多少哦。不要给面试官留下金钱对你来说是唯一重要的事情的感觉。把薪水的问题和工作本身挂钩。

 

但是无论合适可能的话,在你到面试过程的最后一个阶段之前,少谈论薪水的问题。到那个阶段的时候,你就应该知道,这个公司对你有很大的兴趣,这个时候在谈论薪水待遇的话就会有很大的余地了。

 

24.你长期的目标是什么?

 

回到你寻找工作的计划阶段。不要这样回答“我希望能够得到你广告中的工作”。把你的目标与你面试的公司关系起来,“在你们这样一个公司,我希望能够…”

 

25.你目前位置在工作中是多么的成功?

 

你要回答,总的来说你对你目前为止的职业生涯是很高兴很满意的。列举一些生活中普通的琐事,你觉得你完成的很好,没有怨言。

 

要想别人展现一个积极和自信的面貌,但是不要夸大其词。例如这样的回答“所有的事情都特别的好!我不能想象一个更好的事情了!我非常的开心。”,会使得面试官觉得你是不是在愚弄他或者你自己。最具有说服力的答案通常都是相当自信的。

Springer Finance Book List

Ammann M., Credit Risk Valuation: Methods, Models, and Application (2001)清华有中译本

Back K., A Course in Derivative Securities: Introduction to Theory and Computation (2005)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Barucci E., Financial Markets Theory. Equilibrium, Efficiency and Information (2003)

Bielecki T.R. and Rutkowski M., Credit Risk: Modeling, Valuation and Hedging (2002)

Bingham N.H. and Kiesel R., Risk-Neutral Valuation: Pricing and Hedging of Financial
Derivatives (1998, 2nd ed. 2004)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Brigo D. and Mercurio F.,Interest Rate Models -Theory and Practice: With Smile, Inflation and Credit,
(2001, 2nd ed. 2006)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Buff R., Uncertain Volatility Models – Theory and Application (2002)

Carmona R.A. and Tehranchi M.R., Interest Rate Models: An Infinite Dimensional Stochastic
Analysis Perspective (2006)

Dana R.-A. and Jeanblanc M., Financial Markets in Continuous Time (2003)

Deboeck G. and Kohonen T. (Editors), Visual Explorations in Finance with Self-Organizing
Maps (1998)

Delbaen F. and Schachermayer W., The Mathematics of Arbitrage (2005)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Elliott R.J. and Kopp P.E., Mathematics of Financial Markets (1999, 2nd ed. 2005)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Fengler M.R., Semiparametric Modeling of Implied Volatility (2005)

Filipovi′c D., Term-Structure Models (2009)

Fusai G. and Roncoroni A., Implementing Models in Quantitative Finance (2008)

Geman H., Madan D., Pliska S.R. and Vorst T. (Editors), Mathematical Finance – Bachelier
Congress 2000 (2001)

Gundlach M. and Lehrbass F. (Editors), CreditRisk+ in the Banking Industry (2004)

Jeanblanc M., Yor M., Chesney M., Mathematical Methods for Financial Markets (2009)

Jondeau E., Financial Modeling Under Non-Gaussian Distributions (2007)

Kabanov Y.A. and Safarian M., Markets with Transaction Costs (2009)

Kellerhals B.P., Asset Pricing (2004)

Külpmann M., Irrational Exuberance Reconsidered (2004)

Kwok Y.-K., Mathematical Models of Financial Derivatives (1998, 2nd ed. 2008)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Malliavin P. and Thalmaier A., Stochastic Calculus of Variations in Mathematical Finance
(2005)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Meucci A., Risk and Asset Allocation (2005, corr. 2nd printing 2007, softcover 2009)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版

Pelsser A., Efficient Methods for Valuing Interest Rate Derivatives (2000)

Platen E. and Heath D., A Benchmark Approach to Quantitative Finance (2006, corr. printing
2010)

Prigent J.-L., Weak Convergence of Financial Markets (2003)

Schmid B., Credit Risk Pricing Models (2004)

Shreve S.E., Stochastic Calculus for Finance I (2004)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版,上财有中译本

Shreve S.E., Stochastic Calculus for Finance II (2004)
世界图书出版公司已出影印版,上财有中译本

Yor M., Exponential Functionals of Brownian Motion and Related Processes (2001)

Zagst R., Interest-Rate Management (2002)

Zhu Y.-L., Wu X., Chern I.-L., Derivative Securities and Difference Methods (2004)

Ziegler A., Incomplete Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs in Continuous-time Finance
(2003)

Ziegler A., A Game Theory Analysis of Options (2004)

ZZ广发展面试汇总

在广发展工作一年,市场业务部(即信贷员)08年毕业
应该说,广发展是一个在产品上很有创新精神的一个公司,他的产品经常能走在市场的前端,抢占资源,但是同时广发展对于产品的后续发展又是一个很没有创新精神的公司,往往会遇到这样的情况,广发展创新出一个很适合市场的产品,在一段时间之后,慢慢的被其他银行COPY,最后其他银行会根据广发展的产品开发出对客户来说成本更低,操作更灵活,效率更高的产品,从而又再去抢占广发展的原有授信客户,总的来说,广发展经常在做这样的一件事:花很高的成本开发产品,再花很高的成本获得新客户,之后被别的银行抢走;然后广发展继续创新,继续开发新客户,继续被抢。。。
另外,广发展的内勤效率偏低,不能跟别的好多商业银行做比较,且某些较牛的部门态度较差,绝不会因为大家是自己人,是同事而给什么面子,表现出好态度。
因为我个人工作岗位原因,我认为,商业银行应该都是比较现实的,对客户经理(信贷员)来说,很注重资源及业务,即便你工作是全行最努力的,没有业务,最惨的那个永远是你

待遇跟业务挂钩,但同行业比较,我觉得偏低,不了解别的银行怎么样,但广发展每年都有较多的人因薪资而跳槽
说的较乱,有更详细的问题可以问我,直接私聊即可

 

 

 

 

东部某分行 一年转正 非业务部门(分行职能部门、支行柜台)转正后年现金收入7w左右 逐年递增。业务部门(公司、零售、理财)5-10w不等 视业绩而定 工作三年 年现金收入20w的大有人在。平均收入在当地银行业中前1/3左右

 

 

 

 

第一部分客观题
50道选择题,40分钟
数字推理,图形推理,语言文学常识,逻辑,金融,统计资料和图表
感觉数字推理好难,6道题花了10分钟…失策了>.<

第二部分主观题
三选二回答,20分钟
1.经济危机给我国商业银行带来的机遇与挑战
2.谈谈对广发展企业文化的理解,你认为其中哪部分对银行发展最重要
3.这一题不记得了,不过是个behavior question

一个小时时间自己把握,我第二部分只匆匆写了十分多钟。

 

 

 

 

 

先40分钟40道选择题
1-5 数字找规律        有一道不会 2,0,3,5,8,?
6-10 图形找规律       简单
11-20 文学历史常识    有点难,记忆力不行了
21-30 金融行业常识    不难
31-35 柱状图数据分析  不难
36-40 文字数据分析    不难,就怕时间来不及。

然后20分钟写个小作文,3个题目挑一个。
1,谈对广发展的认识和建议,描述自身的发展规划。
2,针对网络技术在银行的应用,提出一个方案(好像是这样,记不太清楚了)
3,谈对智慧,金钱,权力,真理的看法。

 

 

 

 

今天中午笔完的。
先是四十分钟的客观题部分,题目涉及内容和以往差不多,包括数学逻辑、文字表达、资料数据分析,还有一部分的银行资本、业务相关的考察。
囧的是第二部分的主观题目。。。。
身为“80后”的一员请谈谈你的看法和理解。。。。。。题材不限、字数不限。。。。
我准备了大段的银行业务、企业文化。。。
看到这题目时。。。。
实在没有头绪啊。。。

 

 

 

1:上午面试  20分钟一组 应该是从9点到12点吧 那就是 3x3x9=
5分钟给大家自我介绍  剩下15分钟9个人的无领导组织
题目:你认为一下几点中在人际交往中哪些最重要哪些最不重要
上午的面试让我对广发展银行印象很差很差,HR貌似都不在听你说话似的 讨论的题目也比较无聊 一点专业性都没有
2:下午二面
大略数了一下名单 好像有40人进了二面吧   复旦的占了40% 财大的有40% 几个交大,厦门,还有几个小海龟
二面就问了些个人问题
你为什么要选择考研?在研究生阶段最大的收获?
你为什么选择去广圳工作?愿意去上海分行工作吗?
一个人就5分钟时间,还没说几句就被kickout了 说12-1月的时候通知终面

 

 

 

面试是一对六,温州分行行长、副行长、人力资源总监、行长助理等几个吧
首先自我介绍,我还是表现的比较滥
接着都是看着简历随意发问
1.你为什么读营销?(我回答的是因为兴趣和性格,顺带扯了几句自己大学期间跟营销有
关的社会活动)
2.你觉得营销人员最重要的素质是什么?(这个问题确实没想过,一时答不上来,就说:
“这个问题…不好说,我觉得任何一个岗位都是需要多方面素质的综合…如果真要说有
侧重的话,我觉得是沟通吧,营销人员扮演是一个在企业与客户之间沟通平台的角色,他
一方面要xxxx另一方面xxx)
3.那如果一个客户不愿与你沟通怎么办? (类似问题在暑假贝因美实习面试时群面遇到过
,在我前面的所有人都在讲着总总方法,而我那时只回答了一句,先找出原因而别急着找
方法,对症下药才有效,那次可能就因为这个只有我进去了。这次的回答意思差不多,尝
试地增加了点幽默元素,至少两个面试官都笑了。可能也是我回答最好的一个问题了)
4.你得过某某商业比赛的奖项,能跟我讲讲么?(我粗略地将比赛背景讲了下,回答得一
般,但强调了下自己是比赛小组组长的角色)
5.有个客户平时都很忙,除了双休日都没空,你会怎么办?(我理解错这个题目的意思,
以为问我怎么说服这个客户给我见面的机会,在两次被打断提醒后才明白其实行长想问我
自己愿意不愿意为了工作放弃双休日,由于此刻造成的紧张,我之后回答得还是有点语无
伦次,不过看到一个女面试官点头了,心又静下来)
6.有考研或将来读MBA的打算么?(我说学习是可以随时随地的,xxxx)
时间已经超出十分钟了,行长问起他人还有没问题,我松了一口气
这时候大概副行长又突然冒出:
7.你学营销的,那对金融行业有什么了解?(我说我确实不了解金融行业,但我学过服务
营销,金融行业也是服务性质的行业,xxxxx没说几句,发现自己有些服务营销的理论套在
金融行业并不合适。然后扭转了阐述,提了下7p‘s这样很虚自己又熟悉的东西。后很尴尬
地说,对于金融行业确实了解有限,有待努力学习,我相信自己学习的能力)

行长接着说了句:恩,学习很重要。今天就到这里,我们会尽快通知你的。
我谢了一声,略微鞠了一躬,同时看到行长在我的简历下方打了一个勾,感觉希望大增。

 

不过不管拿到offer
每次面试后反思和总结很很重要,每次事后我也总觉得本来可以回答得更好。如果你这个
月的面试相比上个月还是没有进步,那是很可惜的,不懂得利用经验和学习本身就是很大

个人感触最广的两点
1.学会简练地回答。我自己presentation并不好,以前总是越描述越混乱,让面试官觉得
我缺乏逻辑。所以现在我一般控制在三句话左右

2.面试是conversation,不是Q&A。这是SCDA专场马群老师强调的,对我的启发是蛮大的,
“你是温州的啊”当一对一面试时,面试官通常会提这点,我会说“恩,是的,非常有活
力的城市。您去过么?”

3.利用微笑和眼神交流。这是我从别的牛人学来的建议,觉得很有用,但自己还不怎么习
惯,一般是回答完了才会微笑的看着对方。

先写这么点,最后感谢下广发展,感谢下work版和应届生求职网,祝福还没有拿到offer的
兄弟,也祝福自己还能有更宽广的选择机会。

 

对于某些身经百战的牛人来说,我实在是弱到不行了,今天才又面了一次,而且每次
我的面试好像都是非典型性的。
一对三。
印象广刻的问题:
1、用英语说一下你旅行的感想。
这是我自我介绍完之后的第一个问题。来得如此突然……而且我还真没准备过。所以
,就扯啊扯,第一次停下来,被第一位面试官gg要求继续,我只好硬着头皮又介绍凤凰…
…被打断,说“你好像很紧张啊”,我那个汗啊,英语说成那样,能不紧张吗……第二个
gg问我,那你看完《边城》最大的感受是什么,我叭啦叭啦说了一堆翠翠的爷爷……
2、你最大的缺点。
我答情绪化(找死型的回答)……然后举例看完《色戒》怎么怎么样……结果被问,
你如果很情绪化,怎么很好地应对工作呢……
3、报公务员了吗?
我如实回答。
如果我们给你offer,不是浪费掉一个名额吗?
……
4、你是一个很生活化的人,你同意吗?
5、第一次收到花的感受。
6、评价一下你面前的这张桌子。(这两个问题都是第二个gg问的)
7、你觉得你英语口语怎么样
(烂啊……)但是没敢这么说……

还问了挺多的,比如你觉得你上午的表现什么吸引了我们让我们给你二面啊,面了几
家公司、结果如何啊,对城市的偏好,成绩为什么变差了,实习作了什么之类的……
总之,我觉得他们跟我聊得好像很不“正经”的感觉,不像之前我在外面等的时候,
听到了前面一个男生最后几个回答,好像是对于银行了解多少、最大的优点,实习经历这
些吧,感觉很严肃。我还在外面忐忑对于银行了解不多,没想到一句都没问……
最后,说是12月份才会给结果。因为三个人,我一个手都没握……

 

 

 

今天去广发面了,比预定时间晚了半个多小时,是小组面试,流程如下:一是给5分钟看一页的材料,关于总经理的选择,并分别有3个候选人的管理风格介绍,要选出最佳的人选,在草稿纸上列提纲,然后给每人3分钟的陈述,包含自我介绍。接下来是25分钟的讨论,最后派出一个代表总结。然后所有人出门等候,几分钟之后当场宣布结果,通过的同学直接上楼二面!大家如果去的话一定要先做好准备!这点和其他的招聘很不一样!
二面完后12月底或1月还有一个终面。今天表现不好。没有通过,不过还是把自己知道的和大家分享一下吧,尤其是打算去面广发的同学,最好先把二面的提前准备一下。

 

 

一上来就是英文问题,这是我的第一个英文面啊,我的口语

水平实在是菜啊-_-b

问我对西安的天气这么多灰有什么看法,当时脑子里是一片空白啊,就说自己口语不好想用
中文回答,结果hr说没关系就是想看看英语的口语感觉,说再换个简单点的问题,就问进入
广发展有什么职业计划。
我一看这是必须得说英语了,坑坑哧哧憋出来两句,实在不知道该咋说下去了,只好再次表
示我要用中文回答。hr估计都无语了。。。

唉,真是太菜了、、、给交大丢人了、、、、


……我像一个优伶,时哭时笑着
久而久之,也不知这悲喜是自己的,还是一种表演
很多人在看着我,他们在叫好,但我很孤独
我生活在自己的幻想中,我幻想着我在一个简单而又复杂的世界
那里只有神与妖,没有人,没有人间的一切琐碎,却有一切你所想象不到的东西
但真正生活在那里,我又孤独,因为我是一个人

 

 

28号晚上19点笔试,考试形式类似公务员考试:
第一部分:选择题
1)数字推理
2)图形推理
3)语言逻辑(就是选词填空)
4)银行法律常识
5)阅读理解根据两段文字提问
第二部分:作文(二选一)
1)给出一段材料,大意是现在经济不景气,金融危机,国家政策等因素影响,问这样情况下,对商业银行的机遇与挑战是什么。
2)如何理解广发展的文化“诚实,专业,服务,效率”,以及你觉得哪条是最重要的.

29号上午11:20一面
我们一小组8个人,根据一个议题在15分钟内讨论出结果
我们的题目是:人际交往中以下哪些条件最重要。(具体的选项忘记了)

29号下午4:50二面
二面貌似是每个人的问题都不一样
1.自我介绍
2.你的优势
3.你的不足
4.介意去广圳么?
5.最失败的一次经历
6.还投了其他什么公司么?

结束时说12月1月会有通知~~~

 

 

易误译的42句

1.Do you have a family?你有孩子吗?

2.It’s a good father that knows his son。就算是最好的父亲,也未必了解 自己的儿子。

3.I have no opinion of that sort of man。我对这类人很反感。

4.She put 5 dollars into my hand,”you have been a great man today.”她把5美圆塞到我手上说:”你今 天表现得很好.”

5.I was the youngest son, and the youngest but two。我是最小的儿子,但是我还有两个妹妹。

6.The picture flattered her。她比较上照。

7.The country not agreeing with her, she returned to England。她杂那个国家水 土不服,所以回到了英国。

8. He is a walking skeleton。他很瘦。

9.The machine is in repair。机器已经修好了。

10.He allowed the father to be overruled by the judge, and declared his own son guilty。他让法官的职责战胜了父子的亲情,最终宣布儿子有罪。

11.You don’t know what you are talking about。你在胡说八道。

12.You don’t begin to understand what they mean。你根本不知道他们在干嘛.   don’t begin :决不

13.They didn’t praise him slightly。他们大大地表扬了他。

14.That’s all I want to hear。我已经听够了。

15.I wish I could bring you to see my point。你要我怎么说你才能明白呢。

16.You really flatter me。你让我受宠若惊。

17.He made a great difference。他相当牛B。

18.You cannot give him too much money。你给他再多的钱也不算多。

19.The long exhausting trip proved too much。这次旅行矿日持久,我们都累倒了。

20.The monk is only not a dead man。这个和尚虽然活着,但跟死了差不多。

21.A surgeon made a cut in the patient’s stomach。外科医生在病人胃部打了个洞。

22.You look darker after the holiday。你看上去更健康了。

23.As luck would have it, he was caught by the teacher again。不幸的是,他又一次被老师逮个正着。

24.She held the little boy by the right hand。她抓着小男孩的右手。(这里”by”与”with”动作主语完全相反。)

25.Are you there?等于:Do you follow me?

26.If you think he is a good man, think again。如果你认为他是好人,那你就大错特错了。

27.She has green eyes。她长着双蓝眼睛。

28.That took his breath away。他大惊失色。

29.Two is company but three is none。两人成伴,三人不欢。

30.The elevator girl reads between passengers。开电梯的姑娘在没有乘客时看书。”between”=”without”:相同用法:She modeled between roles。译成:她不演戏时去客串下模特。

31.Students are still arriving。学生还没有到齐。

32.I must not stay here and do nothing。我不能什么都不做待在这儿。

33.They went away as wise as they came。他们一无所获。

34.I won’t do it to save my life。我死也不会做。

35.Nonsense, I don’t think his painting is any better than yours。胡说,我认为他 的画比你好不到哪去。

36.Traditionally, Italian presidents have been seen and not heard。这个总统有名无权。

37.Better late than the late。迟到总比丧命好。

38.You don’t want to do that。你不应该去做。

39.My grandfather is nearly ninety and in his second childhood。我祖父快90岁了,什么事都需要别人来做。

40.Work once and work twice。一次得手,再次不愁。

41.Rubber easily gives way to pressure。橡胶很容易变形。

42.If my mother had known of it she’d have died a second time。要是我妈妈知道了,她会从棺材里爬起来。

 

GMAT Grammar Notes

GMAT语法笔记

一、解题步骤(前提:假设不知道任何的语法)

1. 读题:从头读到尾,但是要有大概的意思;(因为我们要从肯定对的里面判断哪个选项是错误的)

2 解题:竖看选项

A)句子完整性及其惯用语(现在的机考几乎没有)

B)并列原则(所有的比较都叫并列,重点是结构并列,and连接的两个纯并列句可以不考虑结构。)

◎谁和谁并列(看结构功能是否对应)

◎二重并列不能用逗号

◎N重并列只能在最后用逗号+and

◎A,B,and C只能推出b=c,但A不一定,因为有省略

◎只要不是自己和自己比就不能用it

P133.21 P162.21 P154.19.17

C)动词(包括谓语和非谓语- 分词)

只有当动词能与画线外的部分有清晰的连接时, 动词判断才有意义

◎看看发起者是谁,用意思来判断, 分词紧连

◎时间和地点状语修饰动词时, 不放在动词和发起者之间

◎只要没有明显表示时间概念的词或者时间概念就不要考虑时态,但如果有就立刻考虑,只有现在、过去、进行、将来和完成时

Section 18.15. People have discovered the principles of solar energy whenever fuel becomes scarce and expensive but will forget them every time a new source of cheap energy is developed.

(A) have discovered the principles of solar energy whenever fuel becomes scarce and expensive but will forget

(B) have discovered the principles of solar energy whenever fuel has become scarce and expensive but they forget

(C) discovered the principles of solar energy every time fuel becomes scarce and expensive,      forgetting

(D) discover the principles of solar energy every time fuel became scarce and expensive, but      they forget

(E)discover the principles of solar energy whenever fuel becomes scarce and expensive but forget

whenever, every time 一般现在时, E

◎如果划线部分的头尾是V,先做V。

◎ 2个选项比较意思相同:最好用动词形式,不用名词或形容词形式

to do自然结果, for doing 先有目的

P205.137 P138.13 P160.15

D)比较选项(一定要按照下面的优先级顺序)

◎ 意思合理(大概有4-5题用到意思,但是如果只剩两个选项几乎一样就不用看意思)

比较选项时:

分词修饰 (, 号隔开的)

修饰词的位置改变

从属或并列

◎小词的应用(但在现在的机考中几乎用不到)

although+句子;despitein spite of加简单名词

列举只能用such as

as接句子和词都行;like只能接简单名词

in order to后面的V和整句的逻辑主语对应;in order that无所谓; for the purpose of先有想法后做; so that 先做后达成, 因果顺序与其它三个不同.

similar(ly)to 不能放在句首

can be的意思是能不能做;be able to只能用在生命体上,表达有没有这个能力;capable of doing是指与生俱来的能力用在生命体上

反身代词尽量跟在被代替的后面

have to用在生命体上,但must泛指

地点用where;时间用when;其他用which

生命体用’s,非生命体用of结构

◎主动比被动优先

◎简洁原则(直接修饰>短语修饰>句子修饰)例外:宾语从句的修饰>to do的修饰

◎维持原意 (在多个选项语法正确时,对比“意思”)

◎尽量用动词原型, 意思无区别时

◎AD原则 (考察句子结构时的要点及顺序)

最常用的是:并列,动词,主被动,怪

◎几个怪词不爽(having, being, 逗号+which,代词多, there be, 分词短语做主语

P155一套,18,19section

二、培养语法的感觉(以下针对牛人,根据是现代英语用法规则, 最优先)

重点在句子前面, 意图直接表达, 什么东西怎么样

1.并列:前后尽可能工整

P126.22

2.平衡:头重脚轻不行但是反之可以,均匀最好

Section 19.3.

3.避免歧义 分词短语、从句的修饰关系

P152.10 P162.22

4.实意(巨难)

Section 19.3.

C 连续指代, 无实意名词

在出现具体内容之前,虚词只能出现一次;内容尽量在主句

实词:名词,动词,形容词,副词,代词,数词 
虚词:介词,冠词,连词,感叹词
实词,有实在意义,在句子中能独立承担句子成分,而且还有一个重要的特点,那就是,实词有词形的变化,尤其是动词,可谓变化多端;虚词没有词形的变化。

句子,介词短语,句子(对)

句子,介词短语。(错误,因为介词短语不能当实体)

句子介词短语。(对)

句子,分词短语。(对)

8.A majority of the international journalists surveyed view nuclear power stations as unsafe at present but think that they will be or could be made sufficiently safe in the future. (A-P1-8)

任何结构都应该有实际意义, will be 的be 不能省略

P142.3 P153.15

感觉的练习方法:每天读正确的句子加选项。

语法题做题顺序

1.必须通读全句不能先从某一些语法现象入手,机考中语法点变少,逻辑性加强。

2.先用惯用语排除选项,如ability to, attempt to等排除部分选项。但机考中基本不考惯用语。

3.其次,找并列,广义的并列包括并列,比较和有一些词引导的部分,如rather than, unlike等。一定要搞清谁与谁并列。并列成分要尽量工整。多重并列只有最后一重用and连接,如果多重并列中还有子并列,如 (A and B), and C, 可以用thus将原有并列断开, 如 A and B thus and C. 要注意并列中的省略现象。

4.再其次,看动词。如果画线部分有动词开头或者结尾,先找动词的发起者, 根据时态, 单复数等可以排除选项。时间,地点状语不可插在动词与动词发起者之间, 应放在之前或者之后。动词中的非100%原则:动词原型与动词的衍生名词;主动与被动;一般时态的优先原则。

5. 最后,逻辑判断

a) 通过意思判断,

i. 通过句子本身意思,如主被动,如Table is moved, not table is moving

ii. 通过形容词,副词修饰, 如seemingly & seeming

iii. 通过代词指代

b) ‘怪’: being, having been, there being

c) 介词, 注意正确使用介词,如debate over

At 接触点或线

On 接触面

To 方向

with 类似东西–

to 不相似的东西 compare

of 直接可以体会的性质

from 内在的 be made of

above 静态

over 动态

on 接触

about 与其有一定关系, 只是涉及

on 仅就该问题讨论

over 至少二个问题以上

介词中只有of ,to 可以连续用

迷 which 什么的秘

迷 why 为什么–靠谓语动词判断

d) 维持句子原意

e) 简捷原则

f) 如果不会,猜A or D

语意:

increase/change in sth 什么东西怎么着了  increase/change of sth 什么东西的变化

修饰关系尽可能与被修饰者离得近

列举, 状语中少再次修饰a and b of c

并列和动词两个原则基本可以解决笔考中70%的问题, 但是在机考中明显没有如此好用。机考中语法点不明显,所以要通读全句,更多地用逻辑来判断。

GMAT 语法是有优先级的.

1. 并列. 所有的比较,e.g. replacement并列关系是重点,主要考并列结构,并列句不是重点.

2.动词.

3.逻辑意思.

介词

4.小语法点.

5.主被动.

6.怪词.

7.维持原意,简洁

8.动词原型.

可见你把优先级7提前了.

1. 一遍看懂结构和意思

2. 解题过程是否完全记住并理解

3. 立刻能看出并列和动词的考点

4. 是否因为选项的不同干扰语法点的判断

5. 现有错题再无答案情况是否能判断出错误

6. 错误率最高在哪方面

7. 每天读句子? 有无感觉?

8. 是否因为没有见过语法点, 或应用其它方法解题?(如运用纯逻辑以及句子的完整性,句子结构的简洁原则与修饰的就近原则?)

e.g. 修饰的就近原则Section 18.13. Oberlin College in Ohio was a renegade institution at its 1833 founding for deciding to accept both men and women as students.

(A) at its 1833 founding for deciding to accept

(B) for the decision at its 1833 founding to accept

(C) when it was founded in 1833 for its decision to accept

(D) in deciding at its founding in 1833 to accept

(E) by deciding at its founding in 1833 on the acceptance of

Key: D  (in deciding to accept…是此college was (regarded as) a renegade institution的原因,原因解释的就近原则)

Notes: in deciding/in estimating

【语法】

一、解题步骤

第一步:读题:从头读到尾(包括划线部分以外的),要有大概的意思,把基本的结构读出来;(要根据看懂的内容判断排除最错的选项

第二步:句子完整性,惯用语,固定搭配(现在的机考几乎没有)

第三步:找并列

并列的含义:所有的有对应关系的都叫并列,包括同位语,独立主格,比较级,and,or连接的两个纯并列句不考虑,但是and,or连接的并列结构属于并列, but 连接的前后两部分要完全对应(but是取非的意思)–谁和谁并列(看结构功能是否对应)

–二重并列不能用逗号

–三重以上只能用and, or 引导,其他都不行,并列只能在最后用逗号+and

–两个句子中间要用“and”连

–对于具体词,只要不是自己和自己比就不能用it(虚词除外,例如通货膨胀)

第四步:比选项

1.比较意思:现在的机考题这类题越来越多

2.现代英语的表达习惯

Ø 实意,尽快把实意说出,如果一上来说虚的,虚的之后要尽快说实的,在虚实之间尽量避免用逗号隔开的东西, 实的东西尽量在主句

l 句子,介词短语,句子(对)

l 句子,介词短语。(错误,因为介词短语不能当实体)

l 句子介词短语。(对)

l 句子,分词短语。(对)

l 分词短语,介词短语,主句(不错)

Ø 平衡,头重脚轻不允许,头轻脚重可以(谓语动词之前为头)

Ø 在出现具体内容之前,虚词只能出现一次;内容尽量在主句

Ø 避免歧义

(名词,代词.),分词短语,(名词,代词….), 这种肯定错,分词尽量只出现一个逗号,不要在中间出现

谓语动词象座山,不允许在谓语动词前找he,it,these等代词的具体指代物。现在分词也是谓语。

Ø 句子越符合英语习惯越好

Ø 自己与自己不能比较

3.动词(包括谓语和非谓语)

l 只要没有明显表示时间概念的词或者时间概念就不要考虑时态,但如果有就立刻考虑,只有现在、过去、进行、将来和完成时

l 2个选项比较:最好用动词形式,不用名词或形容词形式。有名词和动名词时,优先使用名词。除非没有名词形式,必须用动名词形式取代

l 用意思来判断发起者,对于动词的时间和地点状语不允许放在动词和发起者之间,要放在动词之后,插入语除外

l 划线的头尾是动词先考虑动词,看发起者

4主动比被动牛优先

5.几个怪词不爽(there be, having, being, 逗号which,代词多)

◎维持原意

6.简洁原则

直接修饰>短语修饰>从句修饰

7. AD原则  最常用的是:并列,动词,主被动,怪

小词的应用(但在现在的机考中几乎用不到)

Times 只能跟more than结构,不能跟as….as

as接句子和词都行;like只能接简单名词

although+句子;despite和in spite of加简单名词

similar(ly)不能放在句首

can be只表示去做,但不一定有能力;be able to只能用在生命体上,表达有没有这个能力;have the capabal of doing是指与生俱来的能力用在生命体上

反身代词尽量跟在名词的后面

have to用在生命体上,但must没有此限制

地点用where;时间用when;其他用which

生命体用’s,非生命体用of结构

in order to后面的动词和整句的逻辑主语对应;in order that无所谓

but作为连词没有任何意义,作为副词代表取非

“,that”必然错

especially:特意地 表示与前面所指的事物同类,已经包含前面所指的事物

specially:专门地,特别地 可以与前面所指的事物不同类,不包含前面所指的事物

 

 

110307 Sentence Correction

During her presidency of the short-lived Woman’s State Temperance Society (1852-1853), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a staunch advocate of liberalized divorce laws, scandalized many of her most ardent supporters by suggesting that drunkenness be made sufficient cause for divorce.

 

By merging its two publishing divisions, the company will increase to 10 percent from 6 percent its share of the country’s $21 billion book market, which ranges from obscure textbooks to mass-market paperbacks.

 

A recent review of pay scales indicates that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times in 1980

 

The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

 

Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than in any previous election. (为毛than 后面不能有it was?).

 

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

 

Rivaling the pyramids of Egypt or even the ancient cities of the Maya as an achievement, the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete.

 

The discovery of twenty-one ceramic dog figurines during the excavation of a 1,000-year-old Hohokam village in Tempe, Arizona, has nearly doubled the number of these artifacts known to exist.

 

Past assessments of the Brazilian rain forest have used satellite images to tally deforested areas, where farmers and ranchers have clear-cut and burned all the trees, but such work has not addressed either logging, which removes only selected trees, or surface fires that burn down individual trees but do not denude the forest.

 

By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop prematurely

 

 

A new study of the 2000 United States presidential election, citing faulty voting equipment, confusing ballots, voter error, and problems at polling places, has estimated that 4 million to 6 million votes had not been counted of the 100 million votes cast.

 

Citing faulty voting equipment, confusing ballots, voter error, and problems at polling places, a new study of the 2000 United States presidential election has estimated that 4 million to 6 million of the 100 million votes cast were not counted.

 

The ancient Anasazi harvested such native desert vegetation as the purple-flowered bee plant, now commonly called wild spinach in northern Arizona and other parts of the southwestern United States.

 

To develop more accurate population forecasts, demographers would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economic determinants of fertility.

 

对比下面意思大相径庭的两句话,

Although people in France and the United States consume fatty foods at about the same rate, the death rates from heart disease are far lower in France.

 

Although the rate of people consuming fatty foods is about the same in France and the United States, the death rates from heart disease are far lower in France.

 

Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, was a well-established method of mineral extraction as early as the eighteenth century, but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize that bacteria take an active part in the process.

 

would more than double 将超过两倍的

Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

 

 

Basic Logic Introduction

Introduction

There is a lot of debate on the net. Unfortunately, much of it is of very low quality. The aim of this document is to explain the basics of logical reasoning, and hopefully improve the overall quality of debate.

The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines logic as “the science of reasoning, proof, thinking, or inference.” Logic will let you analyze an argument or a piece of reasoning, and work out whether it is likely to be correct or not. You don’t need to know logic to argue, of course; but if you know even a little, you’ll find it easier to spot invalid arguments.

There are many kinds of logic, such as fuzzy logic and constructive logic; they have different rules, and different strengths and weaknesses. This document discusses simple Boolean logic, because it’s commonplace and relatively easy to understand. When people talk about something being “logical,” they usually mean the type of logic described here.

What logic isn’t

It’s worth mentioning a couple of things which logic is not.

First, logical reasoning is not an absolute law which governs the universe. Many times in the past, people have concluded that because something is logically impossible (given the science of the day), it must be impossible, period. It was also believed at one time that Euclidean geometry was a universal law; it is, after all, logically consistent. Again, we now know that the rules of Euclidean geometry are not universal.

Second, logic is not a set of rules which govern human behavior. Humans may have logically conflicting goals. For example:

  • John wishes to speak to whoever is in charge.
  • The person in charge is Steve.
  • Therefore John wishes to speak to Steve.

Unfortunately, John may have a conflicting goal of avoiding Steve, meaning that the reasoned answer may be inapplicable to real life.

This document only explains how to use logic; you must decide whether logic is the right tool for the job. There are other ways to communicate, discuss and debate.

Arguments

An argument is, to quote the Monty Python sketch, “a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition.”

Many types of argument exist; we will discuss the deductive argument. Deductive arguments are generally viewed as the most precise and the most persuasive; they provide conclusive proof of their conclusion, and are either valid or invalid.

Deductive arguments have three stages:

  1. premises
  2. inference
  3. conclusion

However, before we can consider those stages in detail, we must discuss the building blocks of a deductive argument: propositions.

Propositions

A proposition is a statement which is either true or false. The proposition is the meaning of the statement, not the precise arrangement of words used to convey that meaning.

For example, “There exists an even prime number greater than two” is a proposition. (A false one, in this case.) “An even prime number greater than two exists” is the same proposition, reworded.

Unfortunately, it’s very easy to unintentionally change the meaning of a statement by rephrasing it. It’s generally safer to consider the wording of a proposition as significant.

It’s possible to use formal linguistics to analyze and rephrase a statement without changing its meaning; but how to do so is outside the scope of this document.

Premises

A deductive argument always requires a number of core assumptions. These are called premises, and are the assumptions the argument is built on; or to look at it another way, the reasons for accepting the argument. Premises are only premises in the context of a particular argument; they might be conclusions in other arguments, for example.

You should always state the premises of the argument explicitly; this is the principle of audiatur et altera pars. Failing to state your assumptions is often viewed as suspicious, and will likely reduce the acceptance of your argument.

The premises of an argument are often introduced with words such as “Assume,” “Since,” “Obviously,” and “Because.” It’s a good idea to get your opponent to agree with the premises of your argument before proceeding any further.

The word “obviously” is also often viewed with suspicion. It occasionally gets used to persuade people to accept false statements, rather than admit that they don’t understand why something is “obvious.” So don’t be afraid to question statements which people tell you are “obvious”–when you’ve heard the explanation you can always say something like “You’re right, now that I think about it that way, it is obvious.”

Inference

Once the premises have been agreed, the argument proceeds via a step-by-step process called inference.

In inference, you start with one or more propositions which have been accepted; you then use those propositions to arrive at a new proposition. If the inference is valid, that proposition should also be accepted. You can use the new proposition for inference later on.

So initially, you can only infer things from the premises of the argument. But as the argument proceeds, the number of statements available for inference increases.

There are various kinds of valid inference–and also some invalid kinds, which we’ll look at later on. Inference steps are often identified by phrases like “therefore …” or “… implies that …”

Conclusion

Hopefully you will arrive at a proposition which is the conclusion of the argument – the result you are trying to prove. The conclusion is the result of the final step of inference. It’s only a conclusion in the context of a particular argument; it could be a premise or assumption in another argument.

The conclusion is said to be affirmed on the basis of the premises, and the inference from them. This is a subtle point which deserves further explanation.

Implication in detail

Clearly you can build a valid argument from true premises, and arrive at a true conclusion. You can also build a valid argument from false premises, and arrive at a false conclusion.

The tricky part is that you can start with false premises, proceed via valid inference, and reach a true conclusion. For example:

  • Premise: All fish live in the ocean
  • Premise: Sea otters are fish
  • Conclusion: Therefore sea otters live in the ocean

There’s one thing you can’t do, though: start from true premises, proceed via valid deductive inference, and reach a false conclusion.

We can summarize these results as a “truth table” for implication. The symbol “=>” denotes implication; “A” is the premise, “B” the conclusion. “T” and “F” represent true and false respectively.

Truth Table for Implication
Premise Conclusion Inference
A B A => B
false false true
false true true
true false false
true true true
  • If the premises are false and the inference valid, the conclusion can be true or false. (Lines 1 and 2.)
  • If the premises are true and the conclusion false, the inference must be invalid. (Line 3.)
  • If the premises are true and the inference valid, the conclusion must be true. (Line 4.)

So the fact that an argument is valid doesn’t necessarily mean that its conclusion holds–it may have started from false premises.

If an argument is valid, and in addition it started from true premises, then it is called a sound argument. A sound argument must arrive at a true conclusion.

Example argument

Here’s an example of an argument which is valid, and which may or may not be sound:

  1. Premise: Every event has a cause
  2. Premise: The universe has a beginning
  3. Premise: All beginnings involve an event
  4. Inference: This implies that the beginning of the universe involved an event
  5. Inference: Therefore the beginning of the universe had a cause
  6. Conclusion: The universe had a cause

The proposition in line 4 is inferred from lines 2 and 3. Line 1 is then used, with the proposition derived in line 4, to infer a new proposition in line 5. The result of the inference in line 5 is then restated (in slightly simplified form) as the conclusion.

Spotting arguments

Spotting an argument is harder than spotting premises or a conclusion. Lots of people shower their writing with assertions, without ever producing anything you might reasonably call an argument.

Sometimes arguments don’t follow the pattern described above. For example, people may state their conclusions first, and then justify them afterwards. This is valid, but it can be a little confusing.

To make the situation worse, some statements look like arguments but aren’t. For example:

“If the Bible is accurate, Jesus must either have been insane, a liar, or the Son of God.”

That’s not an argument; it’s a conditional statement. It doesn’t state the premises necessary to support its conclusion, and even if you add those assertions it suffers from a number of other flaws which are described in more detail in the Atheist Arguments document.

An argument is also not the same as an explanation. Suppose that you are trying to argue that Albert Einstein believed in God, and say:

“Einstein made his famous statement ‘God does not play dice’ because of his belief in God.”

That may look like a relevant argument, but it’s not; it’s an explanation of Einstein’s statement. To see this, remember that a statement of the form “X because Y” can be rephrased as an equivalent statement, of the form “Y therefore X.” Doing so gives us:

“Einstein believed in God, therefore he made his famous statement ‘God does not play dice.'”

Now it’s clear that the statement, which looked like an argument, is actually assuming the result which it is supposed to be proving, in order to explain the Einstein quote.

Furthermore, Einstein did not believe in a personal God concerned with human affairs–again, see the Atheist Arguments document.

We’ve outlined the structure of a sound deductive argument, from premises to conclusion. But ultimately, the conclusion of a valid logical argument is only as compelling as the premises you started from. Logic in itself doesn’t solve the problem of verifying the basic assertions which support arguments; for that, we need some other tool. The dominant means of verifying basic assertions is scientific enquiry. However, the philosophy of science and the scientific method are huge topics which are quite beyond the scope of this document.

Fallacies

There are a number of common pitfalls to avoid when constructing a deductive argument; they’re known as fallacies. In everyday English, we refer to many kinds of mistaken beliefs as fallacies; but in logic, the term has a more specific meaning: a fallacy is a technical flaw which makes an argument unsound or invalid.

(Note that you can criticize more than just the soundness of an argument. Arguments are almost always presented with some specific purpose in mind–and the intent of the argument may also be worthy of criticism.)

Arguments which contain fallacies are described as fallacious. They often appear valid and convincing; sometimes only close inspection reveals the logical flaw.

Below is a list of some common fallacies, and also some rhetorical devices often used in debate. The list isn’t intended to be exhaustive; the hope is that if you learn to recognize some of the more common fallacies, you’ll be able to avoid being fooled by them.

The Nizkor Project has an excellent list of logical fallacies.

Summary of Common Fallacies

  • False Dilemma: two choices are given when in fact there are three options
  • From Ignorance: because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to be false
  • Slippery Slope: a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn
  • Complex Question: two unrelated points are conjoined as a single proposition

Appeals to Motives in Place of Support

Changing the Subject

  • Attacking the Person:
    1. the person’s character is attacked
    2. the person’s circumstances are noted
    3. the person does not practise what is preached
  • Appeal to Authority:
    1. the authority is not an expert in the field
    2. experts in the field disagree
    3. the authority was joking, drunk, or in some other way not being serious
  • Anonymous Authority: the authority in question is not named
  • Style Over Substance: the manner in which an argument (or arguer) is presented is felt to affect the truth of the conclusion

Inductive Fallacies

  • Hasty Generalization: the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population
  • Unrepresentative Sample: the sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole
  • False Analogy: the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar
  • Slothful Induction: the conclusion of a strong inductive argument is denied despite the evidence to the contrary
  • Fallacy of Exclusion: evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration

Fallacies Involving Statistical Syllogisms

  • Accident: a generalization is applied when circumstances suggest that there should be an exception
  • Converse Accident : an exception is applied in circumstances where a generalization should apply

Causal Fallacies

  • Post Hoc: because one thing follows another, it is held to cause the other
  • Joint effect: one thing is held to cause another when in fact they are both the joint effects of an underlying cause
  • Insignificant: one thing is held to cause another, and it does, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect
  • Wrong Direction: the direction between cause and effect is reversed
  • Complex Cause: the cause identified is only a part of the entire cause of the effect

Missing the Point

  • Begging the Question: the truth of the conclusion is assumed by the premises
  • Irrelevant Conclusion: an argument in defense of one conclusion instead proves a different conclusion
  • Straw Man: the author attacks an argument different from (and weaker than) the opposition’s best argument

Fallacies of Ambiguity

  • Equivocation: the same term is used with two different meanings
  • Amphiboly: the structure of a sentence allows two different interpretations
  • Accent: the emphasis on a word or phrase suggests a meaning contrary to what the sentence actually says

Category Errors

  • Composition: because the attributes of the parts of a whole have a certain property, it is argued that the whole has that property
  • Division: because the whole has a certain property, it is argued that the parts have that property

Non Sequitur

Syllogistic Errors

Fallacies of Explanation

  • Subverted Support (The phenomenon being explained doesn’t exist)
  • Non-support (Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased)
  • Untestability (The theory which explains cannot be tested)
  • Limited Scope (The theory which explains can only explain one thing)
  • Limited Depth (The theory which explains does not appeal to underlying causes)

Fallacies of Definition

  • Too Broad (The definition includes items which should not be included)
  • Too Narrow (The definition does not include all the items which shouls be included)
  • Failure to Elucidate (The definition is more difficult to understand than the word or concept being defined)
  • Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition)
  • Conflicting Conditions (The definition is self-contradictory)

 

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GMAT/GRE 常考的11种Fallacies

1.Circular Reasoning
2.The Biased-Sample Fallacy
3.The Insufficient Sample Fallacy
4.Ad Hominen
5.The Fallacy of Faulty Analogy
6.Straw Man
7.Post hoc ergo propter hoc (The “After This, Therefore, Because of This” Fallacy)
8.The Either-or Thinking (The “Black-or-White” Fallacy)
9.The “All Things are Equal across time or places” Fallacy
10. The Fallacy of Equivocation
11. Non Sequitur

 

GMAT作文材料:Government Censorship

China’s Jasmine revolution

The disappointment among some foreign observers was palpable when an online appeal to replicate the ‘Jasmine Revolution’ in China fell flat on Sunday.

But what some have failed to notice is that the call did produce a mirror image in the real world of the phenomenon at the heart of China’s fledgling online public sphere: crowds of onlookers.

The rapid rise of the microblog in China over the past year has managed to shine a spotlight on many local incidents of unrest that in the past would have remained hidden.

Online activists have compared the act of ‘following’ a certain person or event on a microblog with the behaviour of onlookers who quickly form a crowd when a conflict happens in the street. And while for now most Chinese citizens are not ready to challenge the government openly, many are happy to be onlookers.

The protest call managed to briefly replicate this online phenomenon in the real world.

However, the event also mirrored the different digital flows of information reaching different parts of the Chinese population as a result of Beijing’s heavy web censorship.

The call brought out mainly foreign journalists and police, plus a smaller number of government critics watching from the sidelines with great expectations.

All of them had got their information by ‘jumping the Wall’ – accessing foreign-registered websites which are blocked inside China, by circumventing internet controls commonly called the ‘Great Firewall of China’.

Chinese-language messaging volume on Twitter jumped to record levels at the weekend as the appeal was passed on and dissidents discussed the government’s countermeasures. But many of those most active in leading this discourse live abroad, and the numbers of those in China are tiny compared with users of Twitter’s Chinese, censored, clones.

Many more onlookers at the Sunday protest identified themselves as users of the Sina microblog, China’s largest, but said they had no idea what the gathering was about. The explanation of a planned ‘Jasmine revolution’ in China drew a stare of disbelief on most of the young faces.

That is the government’s intended result. In the face of the call for revolution, Beijing has stepped up its net censorship. China must “further strengthen and improve controls on the information web, raising our level of control over virtual society, and perfecting our mechanisms for the channeling of public opinion online,” president Hu Jintao said on Saturday.

中国微博培育“围观力量”

英国《金融时报》 席佳琳 北京报道

上周日在中国互联网上传递的复制“茉莉花革命”的呼吁以失败告终后,一些外国观察家的失望之情溢于言表。

但一些人忽略了一点,那就是这次呼吁,将中国正在成型的网上公共空间中的一个的核心现象——大量的围观群众——成功复制到了现实世界之中。

过去一年中,微博在中国的迅速成长,使得许多在地方上发生的、过去通常无法为外界知晓的群体事件得以曝光。

网上活动人士将在微博上“关注”某人或某一事件的举动,比作在大街上发生冲突时人群的迅速聚集和围观。眼下,尽管大部分中国网民还不打算公开挑战政府,许多却乐意做个围观者。

此次网上的号召,成功地将这一网络现象在现实世界中进行了短暂的复制。

然而,这次事件也反映出一个现实——由于北京采取的严厉的网络审查,不同的中国人群会接收到不同的信息。

此次网上呼吁引来的主要是外国记者和警察,还有少量政府批评人士满怀期待地在一旁观察。

所有这些人得到这一消息都是通过“翻墙”,即绕过通常被称为“长城防火墙”的互联网管控,登录那些在中国境内被屏蔽的、在境外注册的网站。

周末期间,随着这个号召在网上传递,加上一些异见人士纷纷加入讨论政府的应对措施,推特(Twitter)上的中文发帖量跃升至纪录高位。不过,这场讨论的主导者大部分都生活在国外。生活在中国国内的人数,与推特在中国的、被审查的克隆版本的用户数量相比,十分渺小。

周日的抗议活动中,更多的围观者承认自己是新浪微博——中国最大的微博平台——的用户,但他们表示自己对此次集会是为了什么一无所知。当有人解释这是一场有计划的中国版“茉莉花革命”时,大部分年轻人脸上露出难以置信的神色。

这正是政府想要的结果。面对民间对变革的吁求,北京已经加强了互联网审查。中国国家主席胡锦涛周六表示,中国必须“进一步加强和完善信息网络管理,提高对虚拟社会的管理水平,健全网上舆论引导机制。”

 

 

【AWA】Personal Notes

GMAT Issue Topic list (2011年 有待分析)

GMAT Argument Topic List (2011年 有待分析)

GMAT Prep Grammer Notes (2008年 Chase Dream版本)

GRE Issue Topic List 及个人 重新分类的笔记 (2009年)

GRE Argument Topic List

GRE Argument Topic的个人分析笔记 (2009年)

 

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